As I alluded to earlier, coding SVGs by hand can be time consuming, especially considering the fact that there are so many great JavaScript libraries out there that would build them for you. Even though I did not use the framework, I was able to adapt to my application without problems. Digging deep into what I remember from high school math, I know that the radius based on the circumference is: r = C/(2π), or r = 100/(2π). Coyier and a team of swell people. So, why would you bother coding them by hand? Let’s start by setting up our structure. I also needed to add labels to each segment, which wasn’t covered in the tutorial. Super cool! Share in the comments! This is a crazy number with lots of decimals, I know, but it will make all of our lives easier later. If we think of this as a pie, then having an 85% segment means there would be 15% of the pie remaining. We’ll store the sorted version inside the sortedValues array. Her techniques could easily be turned into a donut chart as well. Fortunately, this isn’t the kind of math where we need to apply Real Concepts; this is more the kind where we Google formulas and don’t ask too many questions. The result is 15.91549430918952. CodePen is a place to experiment, debug, and show off your HTML, CSS, and This comment thread is closed. CSS-Tricks is hosted by Flywheel, the best WordPress hosting in the We want the 15% segment (in green) to fit snuggly in the space left by the 85% segment (in pink). We need to add the angle offset like we did when we created the segments. There are plenty of articles on the topic, including two by Chris (here and here) and a super recent one by Burke Holland. SVG code for donut chart with 85% filled segment in Figure 2. Math applied to something like this is way more fun than it was in high school. We just use the element that is native to SVGs. And, since we need to do all of these calculations before the chart is rendered, we’ll add our calculateChartData computed property in the mounted hook: Finally, if we want that sweet, sweet gap between each segment, we can subtract two from the circumference and use this as our new stroke-dasharray. Here’s an example demonstrating these rotations and overlays: See the Pen Circle Overlays by Salomone Baquis (@soluhmin) on CodePen. JavaScript creations. Let’s create another computed property so that we can return a nice, formatted string. If you’re not concerned with that (in the case of a pie chart), then you can remove it. Our calculateTextCoords method can now be used in the calculateChartData computed property: Let’s also add a method to return the label string: See the Pen Donut Chart – Unformatted Labels by Salomone Baquis (@soluhmin) on CodePen. But since we’re using a circle and the values total 100, this just repeats itself once around. In the end, I convinced myself of three things: My team needed a simple component that could be built server-side and display simple account usage information. Edit, August 25, 2016: Previously, I positioned the text inside the donut using the dominant-baseline property. After adding in a “translateY” of 0.25em, the text aligns a bit better vertically, but we’re not out of the weeds yet. Giving us our final product: Since the CSS styling in the key with border-radius and Flexbox could each be their own article (the latter requiring a much longer explanation), I’ll leave these topics for another day. If the information in a chart is highly important (as it was in my situation), should we rely on a client-side script to produce the information? Just a solid-colored donut. Then, like same said developer, I scrapped the pre-built solution in favor of my own. A guide for modern browsers. There are lots of ways that we can modify or improve this now that it’s built. Most of these JavaScript libraries have very poor accessibility. Depending on your font and font-size, you may want to adjust the positioning as well. It’s about making your content more accessible and more consumable by all people and all devices (including search engines). See the Pen Donut Chart – Segments Only by Salomone Baquis (@soluhmin) on CodePen. If we want to position (or start) at the top, then we need to use stroke-dashoffset. Like any self-respecting developer, the first thing I did was Google to see if someone else had already made this. By setting our angleOffset at -90, we ensure that our largest donut segment starts from the top. The viewBox is set to “0 0 42 42”. Excellent article, very well detailed and explained. However, unlike stroke-dasharray, stroke-dashoffset moves counter-clockwise. The top hit for “SVG donut chart” is this article, which describes how to use stroke-dasharray and stroke-dashoffset to draw multiple overlaid circles and create the illusion of a single segmented circle (more on this shortly). I really like the overlay concept, but found recalculating both stroke-dasharray and stroke-dashoffset values confusing. The good news is that once you figure out a system like this, it can be easily applied elsewhere with little effort. Create our Vue instance and our donut chart component, then tell our donut component to expect some values (our dataset) as props; Establish our basic SVG shapes: for the segments and for the labels, with the basic dimensions, stroke width, and colors defined; Wrap these shapes in a element, which groups them together But, I found this method a lot more convoluted as well as not as reliable across browsers (I’m looking at you Safari). To create the donut chart’s segments, we’ll make a separate circle for each one, overlay the circles on top of one another, then use stroke, stroke-dasharray, and stroke-dashoffset to show only part of the stroke of each circle. But, if you’re only using 2D transforms you can use the transform attribute on the elements themselves to position the text. So, I became determined to figure this out for myself. Robin Rendle also wrote about making charts using pure CSS, where he points out some downfalls to this approach too. When evaluating options for pie or donut charts in HTML, you really only have a few: JavaScript chart libraries are often more convenient and loaded with plenty of amazing options like interactivity. But, there may be instances (like my situation) where you or your team needs a method that doesn’t involve JavaScript — one that’s built server-side. After all, accessibility isn’t just about catering to screen readers. It’s no surprise that many choose this route. The rotate function takes three arguments: an angle of rotation and x and y coordinates around which the angle rotates. Because we haven’t added any stroke-dashoffset values yet, each circle’s stroke goes all the way around. As a figure, we can take advantage of the
element to provide a caption or description for the donut chart. We can fix this with the text-anchor presentation attribute. Let’s use 85%: The segments are created by using the SVG stroke attribute called stroke-dasharray. Awesome tutorial, but I would advise anyone thinking of using pie or donut charts in their UI see “Save the Pies for Dessert – Perceptual Edge” (PDF) by Stephen Few that is quite exhaustive on their short comings. We already have most of this: we know our radius, we know how to calculate our segment angles, and we know our center offset values (cx and cy). We now have a reusable donut chart component that can accept any set of values and create segments. There’s also a with a class of “donut-ring.” This serves as a light grey backdrop when the segments don’t fill 100% of the circumference. How to Create Custom HTML Markers on Google Maps, Building a poetry site with Gatsby and a Medium Feed, Debugging Local Mobile Pages on Android Phone Using Chrome Developer Tools, How to create responsive table in modern way, Canvas element-based chart generated client-side (i.e. Flaticon, the largest database of free vector icons. ShopTalk is a podcast all about front-end web design and development. Again, we want to: (a) multiply our data percentage by the circle circumference to get the length of the visible stroke, and (b) subtract this length from the circumference to get the stroke-offset. Why? Some of these articles even discussed animating the SVGs — which are great, but not exactly what I was looking for either. We can use a computed property to do this. Before we can create a dynamic donut chart, we first need to understand how SVG line drawing works. All that’s left is to make the text uppercase (easy to do) and position the individual text elements using “translateY” so that they stack properly. Here’s the method to get our stroke-offsets: …which we bind to our circle in the HTML with: And voilà! Blech, so off-center. Are you using SVG favicons yet? It can take zero, one, or two values. If I dive into the SVG code and get my hands dirty, I might learn a bit more about the underlying magical gobbledygook. To get each of the circle segments, we’ll need to: It sounds more complicated than it is. This same formula works to add additional segments. No segments. See the Pen Vue Donut Chart – Final Version by Salomone Baquis (@soluhmin) on CodePen. Hmm, it seems that if we have small percentages, the labels go outside of the segments. As we do this, we’ll also calculate the coordinates for the text labels. I don’t think we should. leverage Jetpack for extra functionality and Local In order to accomplish this, I decided to base everything off of 100% (or a circumference of 100). But, they can be daunting and possibly more time-consuming to code them by hand. We need to make both text blocks smaller and align them in the center by adjusting the font-size to where we like it (0.6em for the larger-sized number and 0.2em for the label looks about right) and using the “text-anchor” property with a value of “middle.”. Edit, January 23, 2017: It’s come to my attention now that Internet Explorer 11 and Microsoft Edge don’t support CSS transforms on SVG elements. The first value defines the dash length; the second defines the gap length. Now, we’ll only add labels to segments larger than 5%. If your JavaScript chart library doesn’t have accessibility features, consider improving it. These two values are an array delimited by a space. We’ll then rotate each visible part into the correct position, creating the illusion of a single shape. If we didn’t make the second value in the array add up to the 100 total, then we’d get a third dash (or part of one) or more. This is so we can stack the label and its value on top of each other more easily and position them as one unit. Let’s fill the chart with 40%, 30%, and 20% with 10% unused. Well, looking back at our original mockup, the first segment is shown at the 12 o’clock position, or -90 degrees from the starting point. It needed to: I also wanted something that I could animate later if I needed to. While you may certainly use it, you must keep in mind that Chart.js uses the canvas element to draw its charts, and the contents of the canvas element are not part of the DOM. It wouldn’t be a donut chart without the text inside the middle — that’s what the hole is for right? Let’s fix this by creating segments. After my research, I was able to understand that using an SVG with a stroke and stroke-dasharray could achieve the donut chart segments I needed. I have edited this post to reflect a better, and far simpler cross-browser solution using only “translateY”. See the Pen Donut Chart – No Segments by Salomone Baquis (@soluhmin) on CodePen. However, I couldn’t seem to find any clear explanation on exactly how the stroke dash attributes worked and how they relate to the circumference of the circle. Well, adding text is simple. In other words, learning might be fun and a worthwhile endeavor. Now we need to add additional segments around the circle. Instead, we need a formula: Circumference − All preceding segments’ total length + First segment’s offset = Current segment offset. In both cases, the quality of what is pre-made should be considered highly important. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. With some CSS Flexbox magic, we can position the key off to the right and vertically align it with the chart. A developer has access to a variety of ready-made code libraries that will kickstart her web application in much the same way a home cook can utilize pre-made products to make preparing his meal more efficient. It can be beneficial when the trade-offs are known and properly evaluated. I created the chart as a Vue component for my project, but you could just as easily do this with vanilla JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. Now the fun part. Then, we need to adjust the font-size and line-height. You might suspect that this requires math. Here’s a few libraries: With only a few lines of JavaScript and an array of data you can have a chart on your site in seconds. We have our segments, but now we need to create labels. I didn’t use D3 for this project because the application didn’t need the overhead of that library. There’s one catch, though: in those formulas, t is in *radians*. Thus, the code would look like this: We’ve left the stroke-dashoffset at 25, so the new green segment begins at the top and runs clockwise overlapping the first segment (in pink). SVGs are accessible out-of-the-box (the W3C has a whole section on this) and can be made more accessible through additional input. Recall that the length of a circle is its circumference and the formula for circumference is 2πr (you remember this, right?). So, we’d need to set this value to “25” (for 25% in the opposite direction from 3:00 back to 12:00). If the stroke-dasharray and the stroke-dashoffset values are the length of the line and equal, the entire line is visible because we’re telling the offset (where the dash-array starts) to begin at the end of the line. Create our Vue instance and our donut chart component, then tell our donut component to expect some values (our dataset) as props; Establish our basic SVG shapes: for the segments and for the labels, with the basic dimensions, stroke width, and colors defined; Wrap these shapes in a element, which groups them together Mailchimp: Grow sales with Customer Journey Smarts. If you haven’t read Jake Archibald’s excellent Animated Line Drawing in SVG. Therefore, they are inaccessible to screen readers. And, because they’re powered by data, they’re a perfect candidate for dynamic visualization. To rotate these segments in the HTML, we’ll use the transform presentation attribute with the rotate function. Better yet, what was the formula to achieve these relative positions using the unique/dynamic segment sizes and the SVG’s stroke attributes? Those articles provide most of the context you’ll need, but briefly, SVG has two presentation attributes: stroke-dasharray and stroke-dashoffset. I also understood that stroke-dashoffset would allow me to “animate” or, in other words, position the segment where I wanted in the circle. We’re working in degrees, which means that we need to do some conversions. This is a great question, and I asked myself the same. In addition, our preference was to have this component be as light as possible (avoiding JavaScript if we could) — it didn’t need to be overly fancy or interactive, just a visualization of important data. You may notice (if you’re familiar with creating charts for the web) that I haven’t included Chart.js in my recommended libraries above. We now have enough information to calculate our stroke-offset values, which will establish our circle segments. If we don’t supply cx and cy coordinates, then our segments will rotate around the entire SVG coordinate system. This is meant to be double the cx & cy (center x and center y) values of the s and slightly larger than the diameter of the circles (including their strokes’ width). This makes it incredibly easy to provide additional context for screen readers through attributes and caption-like elements. or "Tricks". JavaScript), SVG-based chart generated client-side (i.e. The value we’ve set in the above example is “85 15”. What is happening is a dashed stroke is created over 85 units, then a gap for 15 units, then a dash for 85 units, then a gap for 15 units, and so on and so on. The color that appears is the stroke color of the last circle in the SVG. I did some Googling on SVGs and SVG donut charts, and I came across the articles by Lea Verou and Robin Rendle (mentioned above) in addition to several others. We first need to total up our data values. In addition, we can add the and <desc> content tags (which are native to SVGs) and link these with ARIA labels, IDs, and a role to provide more context to screen readers. Designing Flexible, Maintainable Pie Charts With CSS and SVG, Internet Explorer 11 and Microsoft Edge don’t support CSS transforms on SVG elements, bastardized feature detection to target IE11 and Edge. The remaining percentage for the stroke-dasharray would be 85 — independent of any other segments. We could adjust the stroke-dashoffset until we get lucky, but this wouldn’t work easily if we had more than two segments. This means that we need to place our <text> elements with x and y coordinates at different points along the circle. Finally, in order for these sorted values to be available to Vue before the chart gets rendered, we’ll want to reference this computed property from the mounted() lifecycle hook. *May or may not contain any actual "CSS" Frontend Masters has a complete learning course all about data visualization an D3.js from Shirley Wu an incredible and innovative data visualization artist. First, let’s add a data property to keep track of the offset: Then our calculation (this is a computed property): Each loop creates a new object with a “degrees” property, pushes that into our chartValues array that we created earlier, and then updates the angleOffset for the next loop. If you have important information to share, please. For example: I’d love to hear what you think about this implementation and other experiences you’ve had with SVG charts. In the initial mockup, we saw that the segments went from largest to smallest. …and bind the value to our template markup. We can make this a computed property in our component. So, next we need to adjust the size of the segment to our desired percentage. For example, here’s a stroke-dasharray of “10 10”: Now, in Figure 2 and in Figure 3, you may notice that the stroke-dasharray doesn’t start at the very top (at 12:00). SVG Donut Chart. This means you must take extra measures to ensure your data is even remotely accessible. We can add a color key as part of the <figcaption> for the chart as well, marking it with a role of “presentation” and an aria-hidden attribute since it’s really meant as a visual aid. Sadly, you are correct. Download over 51 icons of donut chart in SVG, PSD, PNG, EPS format or as webfonts. Almost all discussed the use of SVG’s stroke-dasharray and SVG stroke-dashoffset attributes to position the pieces of the chart. Plus, getting your hands dirty in SVGs is a good way to learn more about how SVGs work and the advantages of using them. Let’s start with some helper functions. I've used WordPress since day one all the way up to v17, I am interested to hear everyone’s thoughts and feedback on making SVG charts by hand, my methodology in creating them, and SVG accessibility in general. To calculate the percentage of each data value, we’ll need to pass in values from the v-for loop that we created earlier, which means that we’ll need to add a method. If the stroke-dasharray is the length of the line, but the stroke-dashoffset is 0, then the line is invisible because we’re offsetting the rendered part of the dash by its entire length. stroke-dasharray defines an array of dashes and gaps used to paint the outline of a shape. a decision I'm very happy with. The segments are created by using the SVG stroke attribute called stroke-dasharray.The value we’ve set in … Note: If you have discovered any resources that do explain these concepts, please share. 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